Although David's name is written only ten times in all the book of Isaiah, his memory was highly honoured in Isaiah’s time. King David had established the throne in Jerusalem almost three centuries earlier. He was the patriarch and hero of Jerusalem’s royal family.
This lesson observes the first two of seven attributes "of David" mentioned in Isaiah, and what they signify for us.
In Isaiah's time, the royal family of Jerusalem was known as "the house of David" because it descended from King David who had established the throne in Jerusalem almost three centuries earlier.
At David’s death, his son Solomon had become king. However Solomon, whose name is not written at all in Isaiah, had sinned against God. Therefore Solomon’s son Rehoboam was allowed to be king only of Judah and the little tribe of Benjamin attached to it. All the other ten tribes of Israel became a second and separate kingdom. A new throne, a new royal family, and a new capital city was established to the north in Samaria. As for Judah, the royal house of David continued to reign in Jerusalem, the "city of David" (see 1Kings 11:26-40).
Isaiah was a prophet in Judah during the reign of kings Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (2Chronicles chapters 26 to 32). Except for Ahaz, these were good kings in Judah, after the heart of David their ancestor.
Isaiah is aware that the Messiah (Christ) will be born in the house or lineage of David. Isaiah says that Christ comes from "the root of Jesse" (Isaiah 11:1-5). Jesse was David’s father (Ruth 4:13-22).
Isaiah always kept in mind that God had sworn with an oath to David to seat one of his descendants upon his throne to rule forever (2Samuel 7:12-14, Psalms 89:3-4).
Although Isaiah speaks of many lamentable things, there is this strong hope (Isaiah 9:6-7). Isaiah is not only looking back to David, but looking forward to Christ of whom David was a symbol or type. Jeremiah was preaching the same a century later, and Ezekiel later still (Jeremiah 30:9, Ezekiel 37:24-25).
More centuries went by before Peter proclaimed the fulfillment of this promise shortly after Christ had risen from the dead and ascended into heaven (Acts 2:29-36). The throne of David had foreshadowed the eternal reign of Christ the King of kings and Lord of lords (Revelation 3:21, Revelation 19:16).